This article discusses and elaborates the conceptual framework of School-Based Management (SBM) and School Board/School Committee (SB/SC) as the model for improving community participation in the effort of improving the quality of educational management at the school level under decentralization. Politically, the government has adopted SBM and SB/SC as a model for improving the quality of managing school system as well as for improving parents and community participation at the school level. It is still believed that the schooling system is assumed as the core business of the national education system that needs more parents and community participation. In addition, the achievement of educational objectives and its activities are the responsibility of family, government, and community at large. The question arises is how community at large could be participated in the effort of improving the quality of education at the school level? Theoretically, the essence of decentralization in educational management is to provide chances for parents and community participation and contribution in many ways to improve the quality of student learning achievement and schooling management system. To do so, the government commenced SBM and SB/SC as the model of educational management at the school level. It is believed that the essence of SBM is to provide active involvement of parents and community in various ways to improve the quality of school programs as well as student achievement. Research on the effect of SBM concluded that SBM contributes significance supports toward the improvement of school programs and the quality of teacher performance and student achievement (Mohramn, 1995). Before decentralization, parents and community participations in improving school programs and student achievement are limited. These participations are organized through an organization called “BP3 (Badan Pembantu Penyelenggara Pendidikan)” at the school level. Through this organization, parents are asked to contribute financial supports to the school budget for adding financial needs of the school programs. However, community at large seemed not to have specific contribution to the school programs because there was no regulation for community members to participate directly in the efforts of improving the school programs. Through SB, community and other local stakeholders of a school are provided chances to collaborate with teachers and the principal to improve the quality of education of the school as well as its management system.
Keywords: School-based management, improving community, participation, managing school improvement, decentralization

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